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  1. #1
    کاربر فعال

    تاریخ عضویت
    28-08-2009
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    162 سپاس در 139 پست
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    Star مقالات و مطالب لاتین مهندسی مکانیک

    در خیابان های آمریکا میلیون ها ماشین در حال تردد می باشند و هر کدام از آنها منبع آلودگی هوا می باشند.بالاخص در کلان شهرها میزان آلودگی تولید شده توسط ماشین ها تبدیل به مشکل بزرگی شده بود.

    برای حل این مشکل دولت تصمیم به ایجاد قانون هوای پاک برای محدود کردن خودروها در تولید آلودگی کرد.در طی این سالها سازندگان خودرو تغییرات زیادی را در موتور و سیستم سوخت برای اجرای این قانون انجام دادند.یکی از این تغییرات برمی گردد به سال 1975 با یک سیستم ساده و شگفت انگیز به نام مبدل کاتالیزور.کار این سیستم تبدیل آلودگی های بسیار مضر به آلودگی های با ضرر کمتر قبل از این که این آلودگی ها سیستم اگزوز ماشین را ترک کنند می باشد.


    در این مقاله شما یاد خواهید گرفت که چه آلودگی هایی توسط موتور ایجاد شده و اینکه این مبدل چه رفتاری با هر یک از این آلودگی ها برای کمک به کاهش ضرر آن ها خواهد داشت.


    دانلود کل مقاله " [میهمان عزیز شما قادر به مشاهده لینک نمی باشید. جهت مشاهده لینک در تالار گفتگو ثبت نام کنید. ]
    ویرایش توسط EN-EZEL : 28-08-2009 در ساعت 04:17
    داستایوفسکی: تغییر کردن خیلی سخته،شبیه یکی دیگه بودن آسونه،ولی یکی دیگه بودن سخته......
    لئوناردو داوینچی
    : مکانیک بهشت ریاضیات است.زیرا در اینجاست که ما به زیباییهای ریاضیات پی می بریم.
    علی دایی:
    من همیشه رو بازی میکنم و هیچوقت زیر و رو نکشیدم .......
    [میهمان عزیز شما قادر به مشاهده لینک نمی باشید. جهت مشاهده لینک در تالار گفتگو ثبت نام کنید. ]
    [میهمان عزیز شما قادر به مشاهده لینک نمی باشید. جهت مشاهده لینک در تالار گفتگو ثبت نام کنید. ]





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  3. #2
    کاربر فعال

    تاریخ عضویت
    28-08-2009
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    3,957
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    1
    162 سپاس در 139 پست
    امتياز:13034Array

    A new definition for the graviton

    Abstract

    To date, there is no way to explain the process that describes how particles as photon absorb gravitons. According to the results of our years-long research we can definitely say that the best way for explain this process is using color charge concept from photon properties.

    This model might be called "Creative Particles of Higgs" or CPH theory. Gravitons behave like charge particles and in interaction between gravity and photons, gravitons convert to negative and positive color charges and also magnetic color. These color charges and magnetic color form the electromagnetic energy.

    Keywords: Graviton, Higgs, Photon, color charge, magnetic color, pair production.



    1 Introduction

    Today’s physics is outspread between macro and micro world. General Theory of Relativity very well describes Macro world, while Quantum Mechanics very well describes probability in micro world. But problem occurs when we want to unify these two theories into the one that would be able to describe each phenomenon in the Universe.

    Authors don’t claim that this model is a unified theory of general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. But authors claim that this is a great step for explaining gravity better than formal quantum theory.

    To define graviton, let’s consider to a photon that is falling in the gravitational field, and revert back to the behavior of a photon in the gravitational field. When a photon is falling in the gravitational field, it goes from a low layer to a higher layer density of gravitons. We should assume that the graviton is not a solid sphere without any considerable effect. Graviton carries gravity force, so it is absorbable by other gravitons; in general; gravitons absorb each other and combine.

    When some gravitons are around a photon (or other particles) they convert to color charges and enter into the structure of photon. Color charges around particles/objects interact with each other. There exists so much graviton around any particle. There are many layers of gravitons around a photon. The first layer is closed with photon, so that its gravitons interact with charge and magnetic fields in the structure of photon. The second layer interacts with the first layer and third layer and so on. Therefore; when a stone is falling in the gravitational field of the Earth, two layers of gravitons are applied to it, first layer up (at high h) and second down (at high h-dh). In down layer, the density of graviton is greater than up, so the stone falls and its kinetic energy increases.

    In this model, an attempt has been made according to the concept of gravitational blue shift, to take the Mössbauer effect, Pound-Rebka experiments and the interaction between gravity and the photon into consideration from a Higgs field point of view. Blue shift and the Mössbauer effect indicate clearly that three different Higgs bosons cause increasing photon mass when they have electromagnetic specifications. This generalizes color charge from the nuclear regime to the photon. This new view of color charge means that we can redefine the graviton and electromagnetic energy.

    Gravitons behave like charged particles and in the interaction between gravity and the photon, gravitons convert to negative and positive color charges and magnetic color. These color charges and magnetic color form electromagnetic energy and then electromagnetic energy converts to matter and anti-matter such as charged particles.

    Full story PDF format

    دانلود " [میهمان عزیز شما قادر به مشاهده لینک نمی باشید. جهت مشاهده لینک در تالار گفتگو ثبت نام کنید. ]
    داستایوفسکی: تغییر کردن خیلی سخته،شبیه یکی دیگه بودن آسونه،ولی یکی دیگه بودن سخته......
    لئوناردو داوینچی
    : مکانیک بهشت ریاضیات است.زیرا در اینجاست که ما به زیباییهای ریاضیات پی می بریم.
    علی دایی:
    من همیشه رو بازی میکنم و هیچوقت زیر و رو نکشیدم .......
    [میهمان عزیز شما قادر به مشاهده لینک نمی باشید. جهت مشاهده لینک در تالار گفتگو ثبت نام کنید. ]
    [میهمان عزیز شما قادر به مشاهده لینک نمی باشید. جهت مشاهده لینک در تالار گفتگو ثبت نام کنید. ]





  4. #3
    کاربر فعال

    تاریخ عضویت
    28-08-2009
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    Bernoulli effect demonstration


    Bernoulli effect demonstration
    Demonstration

    The Bernoulli effect results in some unexpected behaviours.
    Apparatus and materials




    *
    Rubber tube attached to glass tube with narrow jet
    *
    Air blower
    *
    Polystyrene sphere
    *
    Ping-pong ball
    *
    Glass funnel and tubing
    *
    Cardboard tube (approx 5 cm diameter, 30 cm long)
    *
    Cork ball to fit
    *
    Cardboard tube, small (approx 2.5 cm in diameter, 30 cm long)
    *
    Rubber cord
    *
    Cloth, piece of

    Technical notes

    A toy air blower will not suffice for these experiments. A cylinder vacuum cleaner with the flexible hose put on the 'blowing' end (as opposed to the 'sucking' end) works well.

    �Jets� will have to be made from glass tubing before the lesson.

    The cloth should be used to wipe up splashes.
    Safety

    Read our standard health & safety guidance
    Procedure

    Ball supported by an air jet
    a Blow air down the rubber tubing, on the end of which is a glass tube with a jet at the end. You can support a ping-pong ball or light polystyrene sphere (3 cm diameter), or even a beach ball, on the air flow and it will continue to be 'held' even if the jet is tilted over



    Ball supported by an air jet
    b You can hold a ping-pong ball similarly in a water jet connected to a water tap. Again, when you tilt the jet the ball will still be supported.



    Ball picked up by a funnel
    c Connect the glass funnel by rubber tubing to the air blower.
    Put the light-weight ball on the table and hold the funnel over it. The air blast through the funnel picks up the ball and holds it.

    Experiments involving spin
    d Place a light ball, such as a 2.5-cm diameter ball of cork (used by anglers) in a long cardboard tube closed at the lower end. Hold the tube upright by the lower end, with arm stretched up behind your head.

    Sweep your out-stretched arm quickly forward and down. The ball rolls out along the upper inside surface of the tube and emerges, spinning fast, around a horizontal axis. The ball's flight then shows a marked curve (upward).

    It may help to line the tube with fine sandpaper to make sure the ball rolls rather than slides.



    e Fix a length of rubber cord to a bench at two points, A and C. At its centre, B, attach a length of paper tape. Wrap the other end of the tape several times round the middle of a light cardboard cylinder (say, 2.5 cm to 5 cm in diameter and 30 cm long, with its ends closed by paper or Sellotape).

    Roll the cylinder along the bench to continue the wrapping until all the tape has been coiled up round it. Then pull the cylinder back across the bench, stretching the elastic cord. Let go of the cylinder so that that the cord catapults it forward. The tape sets it spinning at the same time.

    The cylinder will move in a' distorted' path. The Bernoulli effect may even be big enough to make the cylinder loop the loop



    Teaching notes

    The Bernoulli effect is the reduction in pressure exerted by a fluid due to its flow. In general, the faster the flow the greater the effect.



    In step c the flow of air is fastest in the narrow space and so the pressure is less. The greater pressure below supports the ball.



    In step d, a spinning ball (or tube) carries the air around with it. As it flies along a projectile's path it has a combined air flow faster above it than below, so the pressure below the ball is higher and the ball rises.

    In step a, the flow of air from the centre of the jet is faster, and so the pressure is less. When the jet is tilted, the ball is pushed into the low pressure, so it doesn't fall until the angle becomes too great
    داستایوفسکی: تغییر کردن خیلی سخته،شبیه یکی دیگه بودن آسونه،ولی یکی دیگه بودن سخته......
    لئوناردو داوینچی
    : مکانیک بهشت ریاضیات است.زیرا در اینجاست که ما به زیباییهای ریاضیات پی می بریم.
    علی دایی:
    من همیشه رو بازی میکنم و هیچوقت زیر و رو نکشیدم .......
    [میهمان عزیز شما قادر به مشاهده لینک نمی باشید. جهت مشاهده لینک در تالار گفتگو ثبت نام کنید. ]
    [میهمان عزیز شما قادر به مشاهده لینک نمی باشید. جهت مشاهده لینک در تالار گفتگو ثبت نام کنید. ]





  5. #4
    کاربر فعال

    تاریخ عضویت
    28-08-2009
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    3,957
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    1
    162 سپاس در 139 پست
    امتياز:13034Array

    Helical milling: An enabling technology for hard machining precision holes in AISI D

    : Abstract
    Inevitable catastrophic fracture that follows accelerated wear of the cutting edges severely deters hard drilling of AISI D2 tool steel. An analysis of stresses induced in the cutting edge attributes such rapid failure to the geometry inherent to drills. The present work hence investigates helical milling of this material, which employs a rotating endmill that traverses a helical trajectory to generate a hole. This innovative method is found to facilitate hole-making in this steel in its hardened state with an order of magnitude enhancement in tool life, under conditions of progressive tool wear. Helical milling is shown to be capable of machining H7 quality holes with a surface finish of 0:3 mmRa such that the need for reaming is eliminated. The process represents an enabling technology with the additional advantage of
    being able to accomplish dry cutting, which yields significant environmental and cost benefits

    دانلود " [میهمان عزیز شما قادر به مشاهده لینک نمی باشید. جهت مشاهده لینک در تالار گفتگو ثبت نام کنید. ]
    داستایوفسکی: تغییر کردن خیلی سخته،شبیه یکی دیگه بودن آسونه،ولی یکی دیگه بودن سخته......
    لئوناردو داوینچی
    : مکانیک بهشت ریاضیات است.زیرا در اینجاست که ما به زیباییهای ریاضیات پی می بریم.
    علی دایی:
    من همیشه رو بازی میکنم و هیچوقت زیر و رو نکشیدم .......
    [میهمان عزیز شما قادر به مشاهده لینک نمی باشید. جهت مشاهده لینک در تالار گفتگو ثبت نام کنید. ]
    [میهمان عزیز شما قادر به مشاهده لینک نمی باشید. جهت مشاهده لینک در تالار گفتگو ثبت نام کنید. ]





  6. #5
    عضو جدید

    تاریخ عضویت
    06-10-2009
    نوشته ها
    39
    مهندسی مکانیک
    سپاس
    0
    0 سپاس در 0 پست
    امتياز:109Array

    ABS brake


    ANTI-LOCK BRAKING SYSTEMS (ABS)
    Most, if not all, University cars and station wagons are now fitted with ABS brakes. ABS means anti-lock braking system. "What does this have to do with me?", you may ask. Well quite a lot really. ABS brakes could help you to avoid an accident, thus, preventing you from being injured or even saving your life. Unfortunately, safety experts have found that many drivers don't benefit from ABS brakes because the correct techniques for using them are almost the opposite of everything that most of us have been taught about emergency braking in cars. Over the next few weeks we will run a series of hints about using ABS brakes. Please read them carefully. You never know when you might benefit from them.
    ABS FACT NUMBER ONE:
    No matter how hard you brake, ABS prevents the wheels from locking. This means that you can't skid when you brake in an ABS car. This happens because a computer in the car senses the moment when a wheel is about to skid and momentarily releases the brake pressure to that wheel. It then reapplies brake pressure until the wheel is about to skid again when it again releases it. The ABS system is capable of doing this up to 15 times per second, which is much faster than any driver can perform the same task. (Remember, this and the other hints are about emergency braking only. For ordinary braking, ABS brakes operate like ordinary car brakes.)
    ABS FACT NUMBER TWO:
    To get maximum effectiveness from ABS brakes in an emergency, you must continue to brake as hard as you possibly can. Keep your foot hard on the pedal. This is the opposite of the technique which you use in ordinary cars. Remember the ABS system will prevent the wheels from skidding. So KEEP YOUR FOOT HARD ON THE BRAKE PEDAL for as long as you need to do so in order to avoid the obstacle. (Remember, this and the other hints are about emergency braking only. For ordinary braking, ABS brakes operate like ordinary car brakes.)
    ABS FACT NUMBER THREE:
    When you apply the brakes hard in an ABS equipped car, two things will happen. One is that the brake pedal will pulse up and down. The amount of pulsing will vary between cars. The other is that the brakes will make a lot of noise. Don't worry about these things. They indicate that the system is working properly. Just KEEP YOUR FOOT HARD ON THE BRAKE PEDAL for as long as you need to do so in order to avoid the obstacle. (Remember, this and the other hints are about emergency braking only. For ordinary braking, ABS brakes operate like ordinary car brakes.)
    ABS FACT NUMBER FOUR:
    No matter how hard you brake, in an ABS equipped car you can still steer. Why? Because the wheels don't skid, but continue to rotate. This means that you can brake hard to avoid an obstacle and steer around it at the same time. This really adds to your chances of avoiding injury or death. Remember, just STEER NORMALLY, even when braking hard in cars with ABS brakes. (Remember, this and the other hints are about emergency braking only. For ordinary braking, ABS brakes operate like ordinary car brakes.)
    ABS FACT NUMBER FIVE:
    Don't rely on ABS to allow you to drive closer to the car in front or to drive faster. You should continue to maintain a sensible distance between you and the car in front. You should also always drive at a speed which is sensible for the conditions. Always assume that ABS equipped cars will take the same distance to stop as cars which are not equipped with ABS. The big advantage is that the car remains under control. It won't skid and you can still steer it. (Remember, this and the other hints are about emergency braking only. For ordinary braking, ABS brakes operate like ordinary car brakes.)
    ABS FACT NUMBER SIX:
    You may have heard that cars with ABS brakes travel further before stopping on gravel roads than cars without ABS. This does happen with some cars. However, ABS brakes are still an advantage on gravel roads because they prevent the car from skidding and still allow you to steer around the obstacle. (Remember, this and the other hints are about emergency braking only. For ordinary braking, ABS brakes operate like ordinary car brakes.)
    ABS FACT NUMBER SEVEN:
    How do I know if a car has ABS brakes? Usually you will find a little sign on the dashboard which says something like ABS. Look for it whenever you pick up a University car so that you know that you are driving a vehicle with this life saving technology. All University cars now have a folder which includes details of the car’s safety and other systems. TAKE THE TIME TO READ IT BEFORE YOU DRIVE AWAY. (Remember, this and the other hints are about emergency braking only. For ordinary braking, ABS brakes operate like ordinary car brakes.)

  7. #6
    کاربر انجمن

    تاریخ عضویت
    23-11-2009
    نوشته ها
    269
    مهندسی مکانیک
    بیومکانیک
    سپاس
    27
    68 سپاس در 50 پست
    امتياز:669Array

    پیش فرض Design of a novel, intensified heat exchanger for reduced fouling rates

    Abstract
    This paper describes an integrated approach into the design and evaluation of a novel tube bundle heat exchanger that achieves higher heat transfer levels at lower levels of pressure drop, while remaining less susceptible to gas-side fouling. The approach combines laboratory scale experiments with industrial observations and numerical simulations of full-scale heat exchangers to study the thermal, hydraulic and fouling characteristics of tube bundle heat exchangers. Three arrangements are compared and the advantages of the proposed novel arrangement are demonstrated. Enhanced
    heat transfer rates are combined with reduced pressure drop and gas-side fouling rates through careful design of the shape of the tube cross-section and reduced transverse spacing

     2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    [میهمان عزیز شما قادر به مشاهده لینک نمی باشید. جهت مشاهده لینک در تالار گفتگو ثبت نام کنید. ]

  8. #7
    کاربر فعال

    تاریخ عضویت
    28-08-2009
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    3,957
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    مطلب در مورد Photoelasticity

    E.E. Gdoutos, "Recent Advances in Experimental Mechanics: In Honor of Isaac M. Danie"
    Springer; 1 edition (June 30, 2002) | ISBN: 1402006837 | 844 pages | PDF | 33,6 Mb

    This state-of-the-art volume covers a wide range of subjects in experimental mechanics including optical methods of stress analysis (photoelasticity, moiré, etc.), composite materials, sandwich construction, fracture mechanics, fatigue and damage, nondestructive evaluation, dynamic problems, foam, materials, fiber optic sensors, speckle metrology, digital image processing, nanotechnology, neutron diffraction and synchrotron radiation methods. Written by leading scientists in the field, the book contains 71 papers presented at the Symposium on "Recent Advances in Experimental Mechanics", which was organized in honor of Professor I.M. Daniel at Virginia Tech, on June 23-28, 2002. The book presents a thorough review of the latest problems of experimental mechanics. It is a vital supplement and reference source for researchers, practicing engineers and students.
    لینک دانلود:
    part1 [میهمان عزیز شما قادر به مشاهده لینک نمی باشید. جهت مشاهده لینک در تالار گفتگو ثبت نام کنید. ]
    part2 [میهمان عزیز شما قادر به مشاهده لینک نمی باشید. جهت مشاهده لینک در تالار گفتگو ثبت نام کنید. ]
    یا
    [میهمان عزیز شما قادر به مشاهده لینک نمی باشید. جهت مشاهده لینک در تالار گفتگو ثبت نام کنید. ]
    داستایوفسکی: تغییر کردن خیلی سخته،شبیه یکی دیگه بودن آسونه،ولی یکی دیگه بودن سخته......
    لئوناردو داوینچی
    : مکانیک بهشت ریاضیات است.زیرا در اینجاست که ما به زیباییهای ریاضیات پی می بریم.
    علی دایی:
    من همیشه رو بازی میکنم و هیچوقت زیر و رو نکشیدم .......
    [میهمان عزیز شما قادر به مشاهده لینک نمی باشید. جهت مشاهده لینک در تالار گفتگو ثبت نام کنید. ]
    [میهمان عزیز شما قادر به مشاهده لینک نمی باشید. جهت مشاهده لینک در تالار گفتگو ثبت نام کنید. ]





  9. #8
    مقالات و مطالب لاتین مهندسی مکانیک

    تاریخ عضویت
    28-09-2009
    نوشته ها
    9,234
    مهندسی مکانیک
    سیستم های انرژی
    امتياز طلايي
    25
    سپاس
    1,732
    1,897 سپاس در 664 پست
    امتياز:48015Array


    پیش فرض draft inducer

    Draft Inducers

    Field Draft Inducers solve the drafting problems caused by short chimneys, undersized vent pipes and negative building pressures.

    Draft Inducers are designed for easy installation in a wide variety of applications, including oil or gas-fired furnaces, water heaters, and boilers. For venting single or multiple appliances, use a control kit






    When to use a Draft Inducer

    • Long horizontal vent runs
    • Undersized vent pipes
    • Short chimneys
    • Outside exposed chimney
    How Draft Inducers Work

    1. Thermostat calls for heat.
    2. Control Kit (A) energizes Draft Inducer (B).
    3. Draft Inducer forces air flow in chimney, creating negative pressure in burner chamber.
    4. Once negative pressure (draft) is established, the Control Kit allows the burner (C) to start.
    5. When the thermostat is satisfied, the Control Kit shuts down the burner and the Draft





  10. #9
    مقالات و مطالب لاتین مهندسی مکانیک

    تاریخ عضویت
    28-09-2009
    نوشته ها
    9,234
    مهندسی مکانیک
    سیستم های انرژی
    امتياز طلايي
    25
    سپاس
    1,732
    1,897 سپاس در 664 پست
    امتياز:48015Array


    پیش فرض

    معادل فارسیه draft inducer لانگستروم میشه؟من تو دیکشنری پیدا نکردم.ولی شکلش خیلی لانگسترومه؟القا کننده هوا هم شاید بشه معنی کرد.به نظر شما کدوم صحیح تره؟

  11. #10
    مقالات و مطالب لاتین مهندسی مکانیک

    تاریخ عضویت
    28-09-2009
    نوشته ها
    9,234
    مهندسی مکانیک
    سیستم های انرژی
    امتياز طلايي
    25
    سپاس
    1,732
    1,897 سپاس در 664 پست
    امتياز:48015Array


    پیش فرض Sootblower

    Sootblower





    Boiler cleaning systems
    Steam generating plants are cleaned on-line by regularly removing ash deposits that accumulate on heat transfer surfaces. This maintains maximum thermal efficiency of the boiler (optimizes heat rate) and maintains flue gas temperatures within design conditions at key location. This, in turn, supports the optimum operation of air pollution control equipment. On-line cleaning also prevents the blockage and plugging of gas passages in the boiler.
    Cleaning medium
    An effective method of on-line boiler cleaning is to direct a concentrated jet of cleaning medium against the soot of ash buildup. The cleaning medium may be saturated steam, superheated steam, compressed air or water. Combinations of water with other media such as steam or air, have also proven effective but can cause boiler tube damage.
    Superheated steam is the most widely used medium for several reasons. Boiler-generated steam avoids the cost and maintenance of a compressor. Because it is generally extracted from a high pressure steam outlet and its pressure reduced by regulating valves, steam provides flexibility in case more aggressive cleaning is required. Superheated steam is generally recommended over saturated steam to avoid condensation in the cleaning flow, which can accelerate boiler tube erosion or result in thermal cracking.
    Application of sootblowers
    The application of sootblowers is individual for each boiler. In general sootblowers are use for cleaning Superheater, Reheater and Economizer.
    There are several types of sootblowers like full retractable, half retractable, oscillating and rake type of sootblowers.
    The design and layout of sootblowers is individual and specific to meet the installation requirements like flue gas temperature, cleaning effect, cleaning area, etc.
    Intelligent Sootblowing enables to use the cleaning force of the sootblowers selectively and targetly according to the demand of the steam generator.

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