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Soybean response to application of poultry manure and phosphorus fertilizer in the Sub-humid Savanna of Nigeria

 

Field experiments were conducted during the rainy seasons of 2003 and 2005 in Samaru in the NorthernGuinea Savanna zone of Nigeria to test the response of two soybean varieties to application of poultrymanure and phosphorus fertilizer levels. Soybean varieties TGx 1448-2E and TGx 1019-2EB were grownwithout and with 1t/ha of poultry manure and four levels of P (0, 13.2, 26.4 and 39.6 kgP/ha) in allpossible factorial combinations using randomized complete block design with four replicates. TGx1448-2EB was shorter, had more pods and heavier seeds than TGx 1019-2EB. Grain yield and total drymatter per hectare were higher in TGx 1448-2EB. Application of manure consistently influenced mostparameters in both years. Manure application increased leaf area index, plant height, nodule dry weight,total dry matter per plant and per hectare, number of pods per plant and grain yield per hectare.Phosphorus application increased leaf area index, plant height, nodule dry weight, total dry matter perhectare and grain yield per hectare. Highest grain yield was obtained with 26.4 kgP/ha which was notsignificantly different from yield obtained with 39.6 kgP/ha. Regression model showed a quadraticresponse and the agronomic optimum was 23.3 kgP/ha for a grain yield of 1.7 t/ha when averaged overboth years. Application of 1 t/ha of poultry manure significantly (P

fertilizers in any of the years or when weighed over the years.

Chiezey and Odunze.pdf

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Salt Stress Effects on Respiration and Growth of Germinated Seeds of Different Wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) Cultivars

Aliakbar Maghsoudi Moud and Kobra Maghsoudi

Abstract:

Establishment of seedlings at early growth stages of crop plants as one of the most important determinants of high yield is severely affected by soil salinity. Therefore, high germination rate and vigorous early growth under salty soils is preferred. In this study salt tolerance of wheat cultivars were examined at germination and seedling growth stages. Seeds were germinated and grown in long dark cups using distilled water as control and two levels of salt stress imposed by 9 and 15 ds/m NaCl solution for 48 hours. Coleoptile and root growth was measured as the response of cultivars to salinity. Seedling respiration was expressed as the difference between initial seed weight and seedling dry weight after 48 hours. Significant differences were found among cultivars in terms of coleoptile and root growth under salt stress condition. Differences among cultivars in terms of respiration rate were also significant indicating that genetic variation exists among wheat cultivars. It was also found that seedling respiration was decreased as salinity level was increased. Significant correlation coefficients were found between coleoptile growth and respiration under all condition. Salt stress inhibited coleoptile growth more than root growth. It was concluded that wheat seedling maintenance respiration is higher that what is
estimated
for C3 plants
.

Key words: Salt stress % Respiration % Germination % Wheat

12.pdf

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EFFECT OF WATER STRESS ON YIELD AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION OF SUNWLOWER

 

Pejić, B.*, Maksimović, L., Škorić, D., Milić, S.,Stričević, R., Ćupina, B.

SUMMARY

An experiment was conducted at Rimski Šančevi Experiment Field of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad during 2000 - 2005. The soil in the experimental plot was calcareous chernozem on loess terrace. Using the yield response factor (ky)the study investigated how sunflower yield and evapotranspiration, were affected by deficit of available soil water during the growing season. The experiment consisted of an irrigated treatment (T1), in which irrigation was used when soil moisture levels dropped to 60-65% of FC (field capacity), and a nonirrigated control treatment (T0). The sunflower hybrid

used in the study was NS-H-111.On average, no significant differences in yield level were observed betweenT1 (3.79 t ha-1) and T0 (3.75 t ha-1) treatments. Seasonal evapotranspiration (ETm) obtained in T1 treatment was in the 402-479 mm range

The yield response factor (ky) was obtained as 0.20 for total growing season and 0.27 and 0.48 for vegetative, flowering and yield formation period, respectively 0.31. Period from flowering to maturity was the most sensitive towards water deficiency.

 

 

 

 

Key words: sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), yield response factor (ky), yield, evapotranspiration

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1018-18060951019P.pdf

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Effect of water stress on yield and agronomic characters of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) b

 

Nimitr Vorasoot , Patcharin Songsri, Chutipong Akkasaeng ,Sanun Jogloy and Aran Patanothai

 

Abstract:

 

Peanut production in Thailand is concentrated in upland area under rain-fed conditions. Unpredictable

time and the extent of water deficit occurs every year and causes a reduction in yield and quality. Under

these conditions the use of cultivars tolerant to drought and producing high yield should be advantageous.

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of water stress on yield and agronomic characters of

peanut cultivars. A glasshouse experiment was conducted for evaluation of 4 peanut cultivars, Tainan 9,

Khon Kaen 60-3, ICGV 98308 and ICGV 98324, under three regimes of water (field capacity, 1/2 available

water and 1/4 available water) in earthen pots. A 4×3 factorial experiment in randomized complete block

design with 4 replications was conducted. Total dry weight, pod yield, seed yield, 100 seed weight and shelling

percentage were determined at the final harvest. At field capacity, all peanut cultivars performed well. Yield

and agronomic characters of all cultivars were decreased under water stress; and significant response of

genotypes was observed. Khon Kaen 60-3 and ICGV 98308 were more sensitive to water stress, comparing

with Tainan 9 and ICGV 98324.

 

Key words : water stress, peanut genotypes, dry matter, dry pod yield, agronomic characters

 

 

 

01waterstresspeanut.pdf

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Effect of Drought Stress on Alfalfa Cultivars (Medicago sativa L.) in Germination Stage

H. Hamidi and A. Safarnejad

Abstract:

Drought is one of the most important natural phenomenon which affects on plant growth. Alfalfa

(Medicago sativa L.) is an essential fodder product which has extensive and depth roots system, this

advantage enables the plant to tolerate long term drought without any damage to its regrowth process. In order

to measure germination percentage and rate, root and shoot growth of 6 alfalfa cultivars (each cultivar has few

years old) under various osmotic potential, an experimental design was carried out complete randomized in vitro

condition in four replications. To expose drought stress over plant polyethylene glycol (PEG6000) with 0

(control), -3, -6, -9 bar was used. Those cultivars under experiment include Yazdi, Hamedani, Qareh Yonjeh,

Maupa, Simmer Chenskaya and CUF101. The results indicated that by reducing osmotic potential of culture

environment higher drought stress, a significant decrease in germination percentage and rate, radicle and

plumule length and seed vigority index were observed, while the ratio of radicle to plumule was increased.

Correlation coefficients of studied plant traits also showed that germination percentage and rate have

significant and positive correlations with plumule length, but significant and negative correlation with the ratio

of radicle to plumule. Among cultivars, Yazdi and Maupa had higher germination percentage and rate under

sever stresses, therefore their tolerance against drought stress during germination stage is more than other

cultivars.

Key words: Alfalfa % Drought stress % Germination % Medicago sativa % Tolerance

14.pdf

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The Effect of Mycorrhizae on the Growth of Zea mays in Nutrient

Deficient Soil

Renata M. Lehman

 

Abstract:

The purpose of this experiment was to determine of Zea mays (corn) exhibited greater plant growth and

fewer symptoms of nutrient deficiency when grown in a nutrient deficient soil that had been inoculated

with mycorrhizae.

zea 2012.pdf

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Effect of Lead Toxicity on Growth, Chlorophyll and Lead (Pb

Contents of Two Varieties of Maize (Zea mays L.)

 

Abdul Ghani

Abstract:

Two varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) (Neelam and Desi) were exposed to different concentrations

of lead [0, 10, 20 and 30 ppm Pb(NO3)2•4H2O] for 14 days in earthen pots. Exposure of maize varieties to

excess Pb resulted in a significant root growth inhibition though shoot growth remained less affected. The

results of chlorophyll analysis indicated that the highly toxic Pb level affected photochemical efficiency in

Neelam, while no significant effect was observed in the Desi. This result was related to the accumulation

of Pb. The results of the present study indicated that, Desi withstands excess Pb with its higher Pb

accumulation capacity in roots and better upregulated protective mechanisms compared to Neelam.

Therefore, Desi is more tolerant to Pb toxicity compared to Neelam which was found to be susceptible variety.

 

Key words: Maize (Zea mays L.), lead toxicity, Pb accumulation, Pb concentrations

Maize2010.pdf

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